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Young men began to abandon the turbans as their headgears and to wear Circassian caps. Women started to imitate them and to wear such caps too. Women dressed like men as a literary topic served a variety of strategies, since mirroring is a powerful and versatile narrative device. Revolt can be won triumphantly or lost in the most catastrophic way Jesi The voices and actions of Arab civil society, it is argued, have had far-reaching political value, both as defiance of state power and as examples of everyday resistance Scott prior to the revolutionary event; similarly, confrontational expressions of activism bear meaningful political value, despite their failure to achieve formalised objectives.

They produce lasting, revolutionary political power. Which creative re-appropriation of other images and other imaginary took part into the change dynamics? How did social networks and new media contribute to develop an imaginary and to function as spaces where people were able to learn social before than political alternatives?

Within this framework, on one hand, ethnographies are fundamental ways to comprehend the living experiences and the imaginary of the youth. On the other hand, contemporary artistic creations are able, sometimes, to narrate the living conditions of the society and to cultivate a new imaginary. Even if many Europeans used to know few of the philosophers, writers, video-artists, singers, poets, filmmakers, bloggers of the Arabic countries, the Arabs used to know them and they were nourished by their messages.

Nowadays, such complexity of the reality make us question about the necessity of a new language and a new imaginary really able to describe such changes. In Europe, in Tunisia, elsewhere. However as Sadiq al-Azm noted, Said warned that the victims of Orientalism might impose its ontological bases upon themselves and upon others. After the January 25, revolution, the Muslim Brotherhood movement and its political party in Egypt downplayed its anti-western stance and proposed a commitment to madani civil values.

Meanwhile, its salafist and other Islamist allies eschewed the values of secularism, and use anti-western tropes. The left charged the Muslim Brotherhood with furthering the process of Westernized neoliberalism. Former supporters of Mubarak accused the United States of a conspiracy to aid liberals and the Muslim Brotherhood.

We ask what role Occidentalism plays in the construction of these differing versions of recent events. This paper will discuss how diverse actors used rhetoric based on these theories to mobilize support which reverberated widely due to social media. His main antagonist, and the recipient of his critique, was the Yemeni government. Focusing on the aftermath of the Arab Spring, it investigates the way traditional religious practices and identities were reshaped into politically significant acts. Furthermore, it considers how latent tensions related to traditional descent categories have found a channel of expression in the new language of political affiliation, splitting the village into opposed political factions: Houthis and Muslim Brothers Islah.

This paper presents two main objectives: firstly, bringing together the lived experience of social actors and broader historical processes, it explores how global events and main-stream political narratives have far-reaching consequences for the construction of local selves. Secondly, it discusses how occidentalist narratives emerge within local fields of struggle and are functional to local identity politics. It discusses the scope and form of American political, diplomatic, cultural, ideological influence on the state and non-state actors of the Arab-Muslim world especially in the aftermath of the Arab Spring.

It constucts hypotheses that the U. It analyzes discourses in the U. Those three aspects of the U. The presentation probes whether by its proportion, magnitude and ambition the U. Representations of Muslim Women in the West have never been fixed; from 19th century Oriental Paintings -of de le Croix, Ingres and Gerome…- to 20th century media images Theo Van Gogh, Horowitz , Muslim women has been depicted either as erotically lounging ladies or as misguided terrorists or submissive victims, all presumably capturing their putatively essential qualities.

Visuality, as a means to bring discursive order to reality and to justify authority to establish the normal and the other, is a contested ground, and therefore fundamentally relational, political and ethical. The question is whether these images of Arab women taking part in the political upheavals and social turmoil in the Middle East and North Africa challenge the conventional and hegemonic constructs in the Western world.

Growing out of a project with undergraduate students, this presentation develops a relational approach to the issue through charting a path of action for the non-Muslim audiences and observers, incorporating ways to overcome stereotypes, tune in to diversity, be aware of integral projects of domination, seek commonalities between the experiences of Muslim and non-Muslim women, and look for intersections of political, economic and cultural power dynamics.

The presentation incorporates student researches on Muslim standup comedians, Olympic athletes, visual artists and social media activists. While other Arab countries i. One of the main issue in the relation with the home country is that of transnational marriages, which migrants celebrate with women from the origin villages. For this reason, women mobility need to be read through the family lens. The same is true for the experience of women left behind, a still relevant category in Rural Egypt. Despite the flow of remittances and the investment in houses migration has not lead to a proliferation of nuclear houses.

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This paper explores the social worlds and vocabularies of undocumented migration in the Tadla, a rural region in Central Morocco with tight transnational connections to Italy and Spain. Since the mids, migration to Southern Europe has become a characterising trait of the Tadla, opening up spaces for upward social mobility, renegotiation of local hierarchies and gendered subjectivities.

The paper takes expectations, strategies and experiences of Syrian refugees who entered the space of the European Union and the respective member states as a point of departure. These individual stories shed light on the contemporary European migration regime at work, which merges questions of migration and security. The securitization of migration is an ongoing global process of dehumanizing the majority of migrants. The attempt to produce, with regard to specific political agendas, order on the one side creates at the same time disorder on the other one, which is in itself ordered again.

Striking examples are the European Union and surrounding countries with quite well developed migration economies. The case of Syrian refugees is interesting, because it shows how the European migration regime, designed to reject and exclude, deals with sudden political decisions to facilitate a specific category of migrants. The adjustments to this new situation even clearer reveal the inherent racist structure of the regime which the paper tries to depict.

Here I will analyze data gathered mainly throughout the year , both in Cairo and in the village, where I returned in March , in September and where I plan to return in autumn , focusing on the effects of 20 years characterized by intensive migration to Italy. The paper focuses on the ways in which im mobility is altering the structure and social life of the village, by discouraging regular activities for their perceived uselessness, with a visa to go to Italy as a new marker of social distinction and value.

This is put in the background of Egyptian migration patterns, as I have explored in past researches. Theoretically, the paper deals with notions of stuckedness and citizenship, and address the changes that are occurring in the village after the 25 Jan. This paper analyses the policies of the EU and EU Member states in response to the increase in cross-Mediterranean irregular migration after the Arab Uprisings, with a particular focus on migration occurring in the strait of Sicily.

It particularly addresses the question whether and how the European migration policies and narratives have changed after the Uprisings and which factors can explain these changes or the lack thereof. The analysis shows that, contrary to popular images, the trends and patterns of cross-Mediterranean irregular migration have not fundamentally changed as a result of the Uprisings. Instead of leading to a structural change in migration to Europe, the majority of the displacement that followed the Uprisings has taken place within the Middle East and North Africa region.

The European narratives with regards to cross-Mediterranean irregular migration have revolved around a double discourse, which conveys a fear of an invasion on the one hand, and the humanitarian argument of saving lives at sea on the other. The conflict in Syria is still going on, and people are continuously forced to leave their homes and their country to keep their lives safe.

According to the statistics published by UNHCR July, , since January , more than 9,3 million Syrians have fled their homes: about 6,5 million are Internal Displaced Persons, and more than 2,9 million have been registered as Refugees. Only four percent of them, In the actual context of Mediterranean migration routes, which have been partly modified by the Syrian diaspora, Italy remains a strategic space: a place of arrival and departure, where the Greek, the Egyptian and the Libyan routes converge. Individual will try to get a more useful one through travels, marriage, or making use of historical circumstances that have made them able to be strategic about their citizenship.

Palestinians are a salient feature of this, as they enjoy the least recognized citizenship in the region, for lack of a state to support their rights abroad. Moments in their lives such as studying, working abroad or marrying can be decisive on that account, and bring them over time a Middle Eastern citizenship or, most prized of all, a Western one.

Those who can keep Jordanian citizenship will often enough lead a cross-border life to maintain this status. This paper will put this situation in historical perspective, going back to the foundational years of the Middle Eastern states, during the Interwar. During that period too, some people tried to get citizenships from abroad, or played on the new regional divides and the different citizenships across the territories under mandate to get the best possible legal protection. I will contend that this period was formative in establishing the notion that citizenship is something that you must strive to choose to protect your rights, and that national loyalty is used by the states as a tool to try and roll back trends to choose and change citizenship.

In the summer of a popular movement emerged in southern Yemen to address the grievances of southerners and eventually to demand re-establishment of the independent state that in merged with North Yemen to form Republic of Yemen. The background to southern dissent lies in war which established what many southerners consider as northern occupation. The story of Southern Movement hirak is the one of a marginalized partner in bad unity with supporters who no longer believe that the partnership can be repaired. According to local estimates, some 90 per cent of southern population now support the Southern Cause as the grievances are locally called.

The fact that about 80 per cent of national oil wealth lies in the South gives a strong argument for secession. Only in terms of population the south is inferior, thus the need to close its borders from northern looting of land, jobs and natural resources. My paper is based on ethnographic field studies carried out in Yemen over the course of three years. In this communication I will address the question of boundaries, identity spaces and security between Palestine and Jordan, by focusing on the experience of crossing the Allenby Bridge.

Yet this crossing represents a very long and uneasy journey, where passengers have to go through several and asymmetrical controls imposed by Palestinians, Jordanians and Israeli authorities. Second, I will focus on the crossing itself as experienced today by Palestinians, and the various feelings of il legitimacy they express when talking about it.

The major complaints are based on the impact that the Syrian population had on the Jordanian economy, which allegedly produced a rapid inflation harming the local lower classes. In addition, the revocation of state-sponsored financial aid for fuels and other primary consumptions, raised the social discomfort with the newly arrived refugees. The aim of the proposed paper is a comparative analysis between the socio-economic situation and identity discourses in order to reveal the impact that the economic discontent of local society has on the construction and reconstruction of collective identitites leading to marginality.

The anthropological approach will be specially useful to analyse the discourses on identity construction. The central questions guiding the research are: To what extent is economy central for the appearance of reactive discourses? What is the impact that this discourse has on the reshaping of both Jordanian and Syrian collective identity? Arsal is a village at the border between Lebanon and Syria that has historically taken different shapes by virtue of its geographical position.

On the one hand, the central government in Beirut has neglected Arsal while — at the same time — reaping profits from the exportation of its agricultural production. On the other hand, the actual absence of a border with Syria, as well as the formal and informal economic exchanges, societal and familiar linkages with the Qalamun region of Syria, have exacerbated the fluid identity of Arsal.

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the politicization and securitization of this disputed territory and its impact on State sovereignty. It secondly explores the recent return of the State to Arsal, with the Army surrounding its territory in order to contain and neutralize external security threats. The paper shows how the politicization of the Arsal territory by both outside actors and the Lebanese State, has de facto transformed Arsal from a non-bordered area into a ghetto, thereby leading to a redefinition of the Syrian-Lebanese border.

The aim of this paper is to explore to what extent tribalism in Jordan acts as an identity source and on the contrary to what extent it is politicized and instrumentalized to protect economic and social benefits. Consequently, I would investigate what tribalism is in present Jordan and if there is any remaining from Khaldoun concept still alive in the Kingdom. Necessarily, I would then clarify tribalism peculiar relation with the regime and the Hashemite family. I would then describe how East Bankers reacted to challenges from the Palestian population since until nowadays.

In particular, the present days situation would show how the delicate equilibrium among East Bankers and Palestinians is deeply decisive in regards to Jordan response to the actual regional crisis. I would then try to understand if there is a Jordanian identity or if perhaps it would be better to differentiate between Jordanian national identity and Jordanian identity. Accordingly, my conclusions would highlight how difficult is to separate tribal identity from the burden of meanings related to it and how this is critical and delicate in rapport with the biggest half of the apple, that is to say the Palestinians.

Authoritarianism, conflict and new challenges to heteronormativity: the political construction of body and sexuality in the Middle East. Achim Rohde Marbourg University : Restoring the honour of the nation: Gendered violence and the state in Iraq before and after In recent years reports have periodically surfaced in the international media on murderous campaigns in post-Saddam Iraq conducted by Islamist militias with ties to the Iraqi government targeting alleged gays and young people associated with the emo-subculture.

This paper discusses these events in a broader historical context and suggests that they form part of an established pattern of gender based violence applied by former and current ruling elites as part of an attempt to enforce a specific set of gender norms in society that is centred on heroic military masculinity and patriarchal family values. This process dates back to the s, when the Iran-Iraq war marked the transformation of Iraq from a developmental and corporatist to a national security state.

War-making and militarism, later on accompanied by the UN sanctions, helped establish a specific culture of authoritarian governmentality under emergence conditions, which, despite the exchange of ruling elites in Iraq since the invasion of , remains in place until today. These practices will be discussed against the background of evidence pointing to the perseverance at least until now! Actually we do not remark a deconstruction of the heterosexual model.

Nevertheless, the emphasis on difference leads to the global questioning of normative strategies of subjectivation. A study on the construction of sexual norms in Egyptian Schools. However, at the present times, education for girls is still considered as a quantitatively and qualitatively unresolved issue. While considerable quantitative progresses have been achieved, a gender gap in enrolment in early childhood and basic education still exists, as not all Egyptian children have access to education equally.

In order to fill it, new compensation forms of schools one-classroom schools, community schools, and small schools are implemented since the ss aimed at offering the opportunity to young girls to attend school mainly in rural areas. Besides this kind of schools, a number of educational reforms are realized in Egypt since the s for the assessment of quality of educational output by gender. These reforms aim at expanding early childhood education programmes stressing gender equality, raising the quality of basic education improving physical and emotional environments, which ensure girl-friendliness, and at setting up girl-friendly schools, which incorporate programmes supporting different roles for girls and boys and training teachers in gender sensitivity.

In the framework of sociological theories which consider the school as a place of socialization E. Durkheim, B.

Lahire and social reproduction P. Bourdieu, J. Passeron , but also as a place of reinforcement of gender difference -alongside the family milieu- Gianini Belotti E. To do that, I will explore the official literature of Egyptian government on education reforms from the s until nowadays. The case of the Ngo Qaryat al-amal. This paper aims at analyzing the new discourse produced by one of the oldest and the most famous Egyptian Ngo, Qaryat al-amal, which I define Muslim and not Islamic, as I will ar-gue, working with young Muslim street mothers in Cairo, an issue particularly relevant for a discussion of the social construction of gender within traditional societies.

These young women are generally considered outside from the society, since they suffer from moral preju-dices addressed to those who break social norms. The sin committed by these girls is the one of unlawful relations, from which many illegitimate children are born. In order to stand for the rights of those women and reintroduce them into the society, the Ngo follows new practices, non traditional, as they are defined by the members of the NGO, producing a new philosophical and theological discourse, which offers new insights on the existence of non-official dynamics within the Egyptian society.

This contribution addresses the epistemological issues raised by masturbation for the women of a Cairene counselling centre close to the former reformist wing of the Muslim Brothers. During the sex education classes which they are providing to the visitors of the centre, they face a dilemma when it comes to this topic, as prevalent opinions on masturbation in Egypt consider it as forbidden by God and harmful for the mind and body alike. Therefore, many stories found in psychology and sexology manuals or on talk-shows bear witness of culpability feelings and a deep anxiety caused by masturbation.

However, as most of the scientific texts used by the counsellors are translated from English, they are aware of the near universality of the practice, both among men and women. As they intend to produce a truth that is equally convincing from an Islamic and a scientific point of view, they have to find ways to establish a compromise between these two distinct realms of expertise. Further, in an effort to avoid people to reject all religious guidance at once because they see themselves as already lost, the counsellors insist on a pedagogy stating that faulty behaviours can be rectified.

To build a relation of trust based on a non-judgmental attitude and evocations of a common belonging to humankind are described as the best way to help a person out of sin. In this context, humanity is defined accordingly to two different scopes of reference: therapeutically, vulnerability gets emphasis as a common feature of humankind; religiously, it is the positive essence which God allotted to His creatures fitra which is put forward. Hence, running against dichotomies opposing an Islamic sense of virtue and Western secularism, this case study allows us to grasp complex strategies trying to conciliate in a unique apparatus ethical commitments, the multifarious discourses on truth, and the drives of desire.

It attempts to explain how a group of men from Alexandria, made up primarily of medical doctors, became widely recognized and respected as a legitimate voice of Islam. This process is especially noticeable in the fatwas they pronounce. It also shows how the organization has altered its interpretation of its main corpus of religious sources to justify its deeper social involvement and intensified political activities after the fall of Mubarak. This research is primarily based on extensive fieldwork in Egypt between and After a general overview about the conditions of Armenian Ottoman subjects in the Asian provinces of the Empire, the paper will provide an analysis of the Hamidian-era massacres through an investigation of memoirs and diplomatic sources of French and British vice-consuls, in their correspondence with major political and religious personalities in Constantinople and in Western Europe.

Even the role of the Maronite Patriarch as de facto political and symbolical leader, which would cast a spell on the subsequent developments in Lebanon and created a system predicated on Maronite hegemony, was far from inevitable if one looks at the more nuanced role played by the Maronite Church and its clergy in the previous decades. This paper will shed light to the personality of Elias Howayek and his milieu through memoirs and local sources, and will try to assess the reasons that can explain his ascendancy.

The paper proposal I submit for your consideration is principally founded on the theoretical analysis and the fieldwork evaluation reported on in my Ph. My paper deals with the complex reality of Jerusalem, which has been increasingly considered as the central core of tensions among the contrasting ethno-national and religious narrative identities, particularly related to the escalation of diverse forms of boundaries.

Since the late s Palestinian residents have faced up against Israeli Jewish settlers who have started to occupy Palestinian houses and buildings in order to increase their presence and their control all over the territory as much as possible: as a result of such a plan, any future prospect of sharing Jerusalem has been made unachievable. In recent years, Sheikh Jarrah — along with other similar contexts nearby such as Silwan and several villages across the West Bank — has become one of the most well-known symbols of popular resistance in the land of Palestine.

A crucial prism to look at quickly changing Maghreb countries is analyzing State-society relations through a dynamic and critical approach, such as that of citizenship studies. The focus on these relations as a power struggle between pro and anti-status quo actors, between competing interests and norms allows for a complex and nuanced representation of changing notions and practices of rights, their definition and their perception. Despite commonly held assumptions, in post-revolutionary context one rarely finds eagerness to promote deep changes in political structures composition and modus operandi.

Continuity of standard operating procedures however, far from being purely a necessity to keep the political system afloat, can hide and help the reconfiguration of old elites and of pre-revolutionary authoritarian modes of governance. Structures, in other words, still matter greatly in changing and in flux political contexts, but they have to face pressures from new forms of agency, empowered by successful mobilization. Despite possible democratic backsliding, namely, contentious politics, once unleashed as during revolutionary times, is hard to constrain once and for all.

The threat of protest actions remains a watchdog against complete reversal of the political order, unless most members of these counter-elites are co-opted by the new regime. What successful protests traditionally accomplish is to publicly expose the expectations-capability gap of the regime in power, the extent of the broken promises upon which the legitimacy of this regimes rested. Such a public acknowledgement is not rapidly forgotten and can remain as a powerful message expressing distrust to the new elites in power.

If turning towards hybrid or authoritarian modes of governance, these new elites could rely on the strengthening of administrative and coercive structures, rather than on building the state and making it a strong one. This distinction by Nazih Ayubi might help us shed light on the different trajectories and outcomes of the Egyptian and Tunisian transition, and offer us an indication of which strategies by external actors could prove detrimental and counter-productive.

The paper aims at contributing to the emerging research field of authoritarian regime learning. We suggest a three-step model for analysis: After examining whether regime learning has actually taken place 1 , we trace whether learning has transformed into policy change 2. Applying the model to the diverse cases of Jordan and Syria post, we hold that the impact of structural constraints — both as constraints between learning and policy change step 1 to 2 as well as between policy change and effectiveness step 2 to 3 — remains crucial in any more agency-oriented study of authoritarian learning.

This paper will explore reconfigurations of authoritarian governance in the Arab World following the resurgence of mass politics beginning in From the vantage point of mid, the political gains of the uprisings are far more elusive. With the possible exception of Tunisia, democratic transitions have stalled or been repressed, mass politics has effectively been contained, and authoritarian leaders have regained the initiative.

In the case of Syria, the violence unleashed against peaceful protesters by the regime of Bashar al-Assad has shattered the stability of the state order in the Levant and facilitated the rise of violent sectarian extremism. This paper will argue that the reassertion of authoritarianism since did not come about simply because authoritarian elites in the Middle East did more of the same, only better.

Rather, to reestablish their control over newly mobilized societies authoritarian regimes made important, and in some cases potentially transformative, changes in their policies and their tactics. What is emerging as these changes take hold are two distinctive modes of authoritarian governance, both more exclusionary, repressive, and sectarian than their predecessors. The paper will outline the emergence and trajectory of these processes of authoritarian reconfiguration, provide empirical support for the claim that these adaptations in authoritarian governance are taking place, and draw conclusions concerning the likely path ahead for state-society relations in the Arab world.

Since , the Kingdom of Bahrain and the Sultanate of Oman have been the Gulf monarchies where expressions of social discontent have been more vocal. Unsurprisingly, the authorities of these two states, with more limited oil resources than their neighbours, face greater difficulties to propose a new social contract replacing the old patrimonial model based on the clientelist distribution of the rent which presided over the stability of these regimes for decades. This paper analyses, in a comparative perspective, the non-coercive strategies implemented in Bahrain and Oman since the end of the s to consolidate the current political order and to address internal challenges in order to survive.

This paper is based on the results of personal interviews with political, economic and social actors conducted in Oman since and in Bahrain since , including regular fieldworks since Spring It is widely accepted that authoritarian regimes are often very flexible in adjusting to international norms without necessarily giving up their grip on society.

The transfer of norms and policy instrument does not only proceed in one direction, where Western democracies and international organisations such as the World Bank are the diffusers. Authoritarian regimes also do learn from each other. Against this backdrop it is particularly interesting to ask how policy transfer operates: Who are the actors engaging in policy-transfer, what are the loci where transfer takes place and which are the instruments used to facilitate this transfer. Higher education is an interesting area to observe the dynamics of policy transfer in the Middle East and North Africa.

While most countries have implemented several measures to integrate the international knowledge economy, they often did so very selectively. My paper analysis different forms of internationalisation in higher education and askes how international cooperation in this field could survive the political turmoil since the Arab uprisings. In Egypt, for example, the cooperation with international donors in the field of higher education has proven extremely stable despite the on-going political crisis since Notwithstanding the fierce campaigns against international interference, cooperation on the policy level remained rather intact.

Sometimes, it has even been extended to overcome disputes in other areas of cooperation. In my paper I will review different donor programs in the field of higher education put in place in order to underpin the transformation process in countries affected by the uprising. I mainly draw on documents and ethnographic observations from conferences and workshops held in Egypt, Tunisia and Yemen since in order to illustrate how cooperation programs have been negotiated between domestic and international actors.

These observations enable us to understand how policy networks have been reactivated and how these networks facilitate policy transfer. I argue that internationalisation in higher education is a continuous process of exchange of different actors involving agents of international organisations, domestic policy-makers, academics and bureaucrats and including the exchange of social capital, personal benefits and policy tools. While these processes of exchange may contribute to policy change, they also contribute to stabilise the cooperation in a particular policy area and may inhibit change in the political arena.

My explanation explores the timing and the policy mix mid-term reforms begun in the s and shorter-term political decisions in the wake of the uprisings. The authoritarian reform begun in the s gave them a sort of sincerity. In addition, there was a link between March institutional announcements the Economic and Social Council, the constitutional reform and past reforms. Short term adjustments need also to be considered. The expansion of the Compensation Fund, jobs promises to unemployed graduates, and a mix of toleration, repression and containment of street mobilization helped to avoid a Tunisian or Egyptian, Yemeni… scenario where naked repression, and void political discourse fueled street protests and moved away elites from the Presidential Palace.

My case study will be Egypt and perhaps add Tunisia???? An authoritarian regime is an equilibrium based on a winning coalition whose support is essential for the incumbents to remain in power — as was felt at his expenses by Mubarak himself when the military opted out and refused to repress on his behalf. The whole authoritarian system is buttressed by coercion and repression, a topic that will not be of direct interest here. And the whole system is given sense by the essential role of the executive plus the covering role of the state apparatus cf the importance of the state, with the works of J Migdal in hindsight.

My point of departure will be the resulting fragmented state. As a consequence, different state institutions have autonomized themselves to be worked further… with the absence of a strong executive giving sense to the whole system of authoritarian rule: the judges, the press, the police, the bureaucracy… and of course the elephant in the game, the military.

And the military has gained a legitimacy of its own, with the essential role of the department of morale affairs of the Egyptian armed forces, along with strong repression of independent voices and in the media, as exemplified by the constitutional referendum campaign in January and the renewed era of military populism in favor of General now Marshal Al-Sissi and his election as president in June But is it the restructuring of a regime? The main disadvantage of this new transmission line is the larger foot print comparing to the microstrip technology.

The measured results at microwave and millimeter wave bands show that we still have good characteristics while miniaturizing. Thus, we can further compress the size of a microwave or millimeter wave integrated circuit based on this new guided wave structure. Non-dairy milks: Testing the consumption and eating patterns of students.

Female and male students recruited from different faculties at the University of Balamand in Northern Lebanon, greater than 18 y of age, were qualified to participate in the survey. Participants were asked to indicate when was the first time they started to consume non-dairy milks and who first encouraged them. They were also asked how often they consumed these products and for which reason health benefits, personal preference, new trend.

Participants were asked to rate their knowledge of health benefits associated with such products, compared to that of cow milk. They were then asked to indicate if they encourage the manufacturing of an innovative non-dairy product. Those who consume plant based milk, were asked first about the major differences observed between dairy milk versus plant based milk. These results substantiate the need for educational initiatives or activities tailored to expand the knowledge of young Lebanese students regarding the health benefits of non-dairy products.

At present, it should be helpful to work on new projects to develop local non-dairy products that can be considered satisfactory by consumers and of possible interest to the general community. In seedless table grapes, the excessive natural fruit set leads to compact bunches, small berries with poor color and low uniformity of maturation. It was conducted during the growing vine season in Ablah situated in the central Bekaa region. The experimental plan is a Completely Randomized Bloc Design CRBD divided into 3 blocs; each bloc contains 7 treatments including the control treatment , therefore, each treatment is repeated 3 times.

Each repetition is applied on 6 vines resulting in 18 vines per treatment with a total vines in the experiment. The seven treatments are: T1: thinning exclusively with a 1. C performed at mm berry diameter, T7: control that didn't include any kind of PGRs treatments. The experiment measured the effect of different treatments on the yield and evolution of fruit quality berry color, berry weight, berry diameter, berry Brix, grape length and grape compactness during the growth cycle and at harvest date.

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Results showed that all treatments delayed grape maturity Brix index by an average of 1 week compared to the control with a maximum delay shown in the T6 treatment. The applied treatments had a positive effect on berry weight and berry diameter, thus on the total yield.

Pruning is one of the main practices in viticulture that affects the production, more specifically the yield that is inversely proportional to the quality of grapes produced. Moreover, pruning is a canopy management practice that can affect the photosynthetic capacity of vines, in other words, the fruit content and thus its quality. In Lebanon, where the vine cultivation is gaining an economic importance, the agricultural techniques are rather traditional as taught during the French mandate.

This research project aims to modernize and identify the pruning technique adapted to the local conditions and this by comparing different bud load and study their effect on the grapes yield and quality and wine production. The research was applied to vines of the Cv Syrah, goblet shaped and was conducted in a vineyard situated in Ammik West Bekaa Region located 33o42'N, 35o45'E. This trial applied different bud loads varying from 3 to 8 buds per cane and compared them to conventional pruning, using 4 buds per cane.

The experimental design is a Latin Square shape made of 6 treatment repeated 6 times each, resulting into a total of 36 reps. Moreover, the highest yield was obtained in the treatments including 8 and 7 buds per cane with an average of In many developing countries agriculture sector plays an important role in the economy. The need for cheap, fast, and accurate tools with temporal and global coverage has encouraged the decision makers to use remote sensing.

Field spectroradiometer data collection can improve substantially crop mapping by reducing similarities between different crop types which has similar ecological conditions and by increasing the same crop recognition even with the variation in the crop chemistry and structure. This paper presents a new interactive spectral signatures database based interactive tool CSSIT for the major crops in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin.

The tool combine several features such as the collection of spectral signatures of crops during the growth stage, the calculation of several physical and chemical parameters for some crops, resampling of the spectral signature for a specific multispectral or hyperspectral satellites, and many user interactive features such as displaying the spectral signature of a specific crop at specific period of time.

The salinity of groundwater is one of the most common global problems in coastal areas. One of the causes of salinity of groundwater is seawater intrusion which was aggravated in recent decades on the coastal area and in southern Lebanon. Irrigation by salty water will lead to salt accumulation, and hence it leads to soil salinity. The objective of this work was to study the performance of the two genotypes of millet obtained from the International Center for Biosaline Agriculture ICBA, Dubai irrigated with four increasing levels of salinity 1.

These levels of salinity were obtained after mixing the seawater with the water from the local well having an electrical conductivity equal to 1. A completely randomized experimental design was conducted at the Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute LARI , located in southern Lebanon during the growing season.

The crop received a total of mm of irrigation water, of which mm was a differential irrigation with saline water. In the soil level the exchangeable sodium proportion increased at the end of the trial throughout the active soil depth, notably in the upper soil cm, from 3. Testing potato tolerance to drought by managing potassium K level in the soil in semi-arid Bekaa area of Lebanon was tested in and The use of drip irrigation system can improve potato response to water stress, enhance crop transpiration and result in better use of water by the crop.

Smaller water consumption, lower canopy temperature and higher chlorophyll content highlighted the role of K for better use of applied fertilizer and water. The appropriate dose of K lowered the canopy temperature which became cooler as the potassium level increased that reflects better adaptation of the crop to dry conditions.

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The application of increasing doses of K fertilizers and kg K ha-1 under deficit irrigation, positively affected crop parameters in , with significantly higher 33 Mg ha-1 and heavier commercial tuber. In addition, the average water consumption decreased significantly with the increase of potassium rates. In the applied irrigation water mm was higher than in mm yet both were much less than the average water applied according to local practices.

This could be linked to the absence of significant differences in terms of water consumption, fresh yield. However, a pattern similar to that observed in was found then. New wastewater Treatment Technology: Novel synthesis of nanofiltration hollow fiber membranes for toxic metal removal from Municipal Wastewater Ramia Z. Box , Amman, Jordan E. Increasing anthropogenic activity has many effects on human health due to the emissions of toxic compounds. Road transport and industrial production significantly affected the environment. The emission of harmful substances as toxic heavy metals Pb, Cd and Ni and pharmaceutical residues results in serious threats to human health.

Hospitals are significant source of environmental pollution with PGEs since anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy departments and departments of dental filling contain PGEs platinum group compounds. PGEs compounds have been used to treat numerous types of tumors testicular, ovarian, bladder, and many other kinds of tumors. These compounds are released directly to municipal wastewater systems since effluents of hospitals have no special treatment, then, they can accumulate in the tissues of living organisms and thus can constitute a serious risk for them.

A lack of appropriate treatment methods for the purification of such active compounds contributes to environmental contamination of toxic heavy metals. Chemical precipitation, coagulation-flocculation, ion-exchange, adsorption, evaporation, biosorption and membrane filtration are methods to remove common heavy metals from water. Unfortunately, these methods are costly, and some needs specific resins to remove certain heavy metals and finally, the separation of heavy metals from biosorbents is complicated.

Nowadays, nanofiltration membrane NF technology has gained attention in toxic heavy metal removal from wastewater, since it has many advantages: high removal efficiency, low cost, high energy-efficient and environmentally friendly. The aim of this study is to synthesize a new polymer using cheap compounds, simple methods, and available instruments, and then, to prepare cross-linked hollow fiber membranes from this polymer for toxic heavy metals removal from wastewater.

In this study, for the first time, a new and cheap synthesized hollow fiber membrane was generated by mixing at first these compounds: benzophenone, diphthalic anhydride, dianline, oxydianiline, nitrobenzene and benzoic acid using a simple shaker to prepare the polymer. A simple instrument consists of 2 pumps was designed with different spinnerets diameters to fabricate the hollow fiber membranes. The cross linked hollow fiber membranes can be performed by Polyethylenimine PEI. Where, the morphology of the hollow fiber membranes was observed by scanning electron microscope SEM.

The test of salt rejection of PEI cross-linked hollow fiber membranes to the heavy metal can be carried out using a solution of metal salt such as Pb NO3 2. The results showed high efficient rejection of the hollow fiber membranes to heavy metals that exist in wastewater, this approved the new era of cheap, safe and simple methods for wastewater treatment.

SEM for the hollow fiber image. Monitoring programs show the presence of many antibiotics in several analyzed samples. Therefore, to evaluate if a relation may exist between finding antibiotics in water samples and resistant-bacterial strains; three bacteria Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were selected for isolation, then antimicrobial susceptibility was determined using disk diffusion method according to the recommendations of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing.

However, antibiotics were classified among the most commonly used drugs, and their occurrence in nature at trace levels constitutes a major threat to public health due to promoting bacteria-resistant strains [2]. A volume of mL from water samples was loaded onto Oasis HLB cartridge which had been previously conditioned with 5 mL of acetonitrile, 5 mL of water adjusted at pH 4 with formic acid and 8. Cartridge was vacuum-dried for 1 hour before elution. Bacteria strains were isolated using selective media after membrane filtration technique. Then, a disk diffusion method was adopted to determine antimicrobial susceptibility.

Best retention for most pharmaceuticals was obtained using Oasis HLB after samples adjustment at pH 4 comparing to pH 3 and 5. In addition, separation method mobile phase, buffer, and gradient mode and MS-MS parameters precursor ion, product ions, collision energy, and fragmentor were also optimized to obtain accurate results. Many pharmaceuticals were detected in several samples: caffeine, rifaximin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, sulfathiazole, sulfaguanidine, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin and their metabolites erythromycin A enol ether, and anhydroerythromycin, flumequine, norfloxacine, ciprofloxacine and trimethoprime.

These findings indicated that there was a source of fecal contamination in most water sources. However, Enterococcus faecalis were more prevalent than Escherichia coli as fecal bacteria. This could be due to the fact that E. The perspective of this work is using the developed protocol for chemical analyses in parallel to microbiological studies in order to monitor the impact of antibiotic contamination on bacterial antibiotic-resistance phenomenon.

References [1] R. Guedes-Alonso, C.

La configuration géopolitique au Moyen-Orient à la veille du soulèvement en Syrie ()

Afonso-Olivares, S. Montesdeoca-Esponda, Z. Sosa-Ferrera, et J. Cantarero, A. Navalon, et J.

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Sidrach-cardona, M. Hijosa-valsero, E. Marti, J. Luis, et E. Total Environ. Aerosol particles have important direct and indirect impacts on the climate. Within the planetary Boundary layer BL , these particles have a relatively short lifetime due to a large number of removal processes, e. Once aerosols are transported into the free troposphere FT , their atmospheric lifetime increases significantly making them representative of large spatial areas.

The physical and chemical properties of the FT aerosols are poorly characterized due to difficulties in performing high altitude measurements. This methodology allows us to study the differences in particle physical characteristics between the FT and the BL. In addition to aerosol size distribution measurements, we analyzed black carbon BC measurements and a range of different meteorological parameters.

No significant difference between the BL and the FT concentrations was observed for the nucleation mode particles for all seasons, suggesting a continuous additional source of nucleation mode particles in the FT compared to the other aerosol size classes. Finally, coarse mode particles concentrations were found higher in the FT than in the BL during summer, and similar in the two atmospheric layers for the other seasons Fig.

In the context of CANA Plus project and in order to assess the spatio-temporal variation of water and sediment characteristics in the watershed of Ibrahim River and its coastal marine zone, water's physico-chemical parameters were analyzed and interpreted as well as sediment's grain size composition, geochemical, biochemical and biological parameters.

Water samples were collected from the river and the sea moreover sediment samples were collected from the marine coastal area at depths varying from 10 to 60 m. The concentrations of nutrients in the river water were found to be lower than those in the sea water. The grain size composition of the sediment was mainly composed of fine sand at the shallower points and fine fraction at the deepest sampling points 60 m.

The percentage of total nitrogen fluctuated between 0. This situation may be attributed to the decomposition, sinking and deposition of shells and some aquatic organism such as Coccolithophores, foraminifers, gastropods and bivalves on seabed verified by stereoscopic observation of the sediment. Calcium carbonate may also have terrestrial origin related to the carbonated adjacent land and may be exported to the coastal area with the river inputs. Low values of chlorophyll-a less than 0. Few macrofaunal groups were identified such as gastropods, crustaceans and polychaetes generally found in sandy bottoms governed by high hydrodynamic conditions.

The low abundance of these biological taxa is related to the unstable environmental conditions, coupled with a low availability of food resources preventing the establishment of stable benthic communities. This preliminary study shows that the coastal marine area as well as the watershed of Ibrahim River seems to be less subjected to sources of contamination when comparing the studied parameters to those found in other regions. These compounds find their way in the aquatic environment through atmospheric deposition from natural and anthropogenic activities.

Anthropogenic activities include pyrogenic processes, wood-burning stoves, barbecues, incineration, municipal sewage, and vehicle emissions; whereas natural sources cover volcanos and forest fires. PAHs are known by their toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effect; therefore the monitoring of these compounds in the environment has been of great environmental concern all over the world. The objective of this study is to evaluate the occurrence, distribution and source of PAHs in surface and groundwater samples collected along the watershed of Abou Ali River - North Lebanon.

A field survey was conducted to determine surface and groundwater sampling locations. Consequently, 30 water samples 16 surface water and 14 groundwater samples were collected from different locations along the watershed. The results obtained for surface water samples showed absence or minor contamination in mountainous sites located in the upper part of the river where the total concentration of PAHs varied between 0 and 0.

Furthermore, the concentrations of PAHs in the middle part of the river have reached The lower part of the river, located in the region of Tripoli, showed the highest PAHs contamination The increase in PAHs concentration in this highly populated site is caused by traffic as long as urban run-off, municipal sewage and burning of vehicle tires. On the other side, the concentrations of PAHs obtained in groundwater samples were below the EPA guidelines and do not pose any environmental risk. The calculated DR showed that the pyrolytic PAHs contribute to the contamination of water in the studied area.

As a conclusion, the middle and lower part of the river were found to be contaminated, whereas the upper part didn't show any contamination. As a recommendation, attention should be paid to control the anthropogenic activities in the contaminated areas and the presence of PAHs in the sediments should also be investigated.

In agricultural landscapes, it is of utmost importance to maintain forest habitats since the biodiversity they host has been proven to deliver a number of ecosystem services to agriculture. The number of species found within a given area cf. This spatial nestedness constrains the alpha-gamma diversity relationship towards either linear cf. Although the impact of habitat fragmentation on alpha or gamma diversity has been widely studied, its impact on the alpha-gamma relationship at different spatial resolutions remains unknown.

Here, we assume that habitat fragmentation shifts the alpha-gamma diversity relationship from a linear, at low fragmentation, to a curvilinear pattern at high fragmentation. We used linear and linear mixed effects models to test, for each of the 10 pairs of nested spatial resolutions, whether habitat type interacts with gamma diversity while controlling for the effect of patch characteristics size, shape length and age and habitat quality soil conditions on alpha diversity.

We found interaction terms only for those pairs of nested spatial resolutions that compare a given plot area to the coarsest resolution e. This suggests that forest fragmentation influence the alpha-gamma diversity relationship in support with our hypothesis and thus should be taken into account, in addition to patch characteristics and habitat quality, when predicting local richness from the regional species pool. With increasing population and food demands in Lebanon, land degradation and mismanagement put food security under risk. Mapping annual cash crops distribution benefits the national efforts to provide updated agricultural statistics.

This is relevant in a country where sporadic agricultural census is executed once every years and depends on field questionnaire. In this case, the source of information is based mainly on the estimation of farmers. Consequently, supporting decision-making and end-users for the planning of agricultural sector, water allocation, mapping of crop distribution and market conditions will be remarkable for the maintenance of national food security. In Lebanon, the number of household members of farmers, who are living solely or partly from farming including the farmer himself , reached ,, an average of about 5 people per farm, MoA, The recent map of soil aptitude to agriculture shows that the agricultural land area with high and medium productivity soils is estimated at , ha, representing half of the country's cultivable land mass Darwish, Remote sensing computation is a useful tool to the monitor crop development and their yields.

Some plant growth models require estimates of leaf area and absorbed radiation to simulate evapotranspiration and photosynthesis. In this regard, biome type and land wetness are expected to have impact on crop radiation use efficiency. A Bowen ratio station shall be installed in a representative field, with a number of pixels corresponding to the resolution of open access satellites, in order to calibrate the remotely sensed data regarding mainly evapotranspiration.

The station will continuously provide us with ground data on heat gained and lost radiation , wind speed, soil moisture and temperature as well as air humidity and temperature. This acquaintance will provide us with additional indications on crop performance, water anomalies or heat stresses. In parallel with satellite overpasses, in-situ measurements will take place to calibrate, validate and interpret the obtained results in conjunction with the history and management of observed fields.

Measurements of Leaf Area Index "LAI" to calibrate LAI estimated from remote sensing , soil moisture, ET Bowen ratio , canopy height at the end of each stage, chlorophyll leaf content, chemical and physical analysis soil samples , spectroradiometer and canopy temperature to control the stress conditions water stress during the crop cycle.

Nevertheless, access to the surrounding meteorological stations is a must for having an adequate input to carry out an accurate output of the expected yield estimation model. As for projected results, we foresee to have an accurate estimation of crop biomass production 3 to 5 weeks prior to harvesting.

Information will be used on real time basis to promote the fast response and actions of farmers thus providing the growers with early warning system for better management and handling of the expected, harvested yield. In this study an original contribution to the risk assessment of DGT Dangerous Goods Transportation in case of toxic gas dispersion is proposed, in order to improve the safety of people, protect the environment and to compute with accuracy the impacted areas when the risks associated to the DGT are occurring.

This tool must be used by all the actors involved in the DGT shippers, transporters, public authorities, intervention groups, infrastructure operators, etc. This project includes the collection of embedded sensor data on the transport of dangerous Lorries, for example their geo location and traceability in real time, and the transmission of data to a single server managing the access to the information collected. Thus, the centralization of the data makes it possible to imagine the functioning of this server as a control tower. This control tower defines a technical and functional architecture of a real-time DGT tracking and supervision information system.

More specifically, it consists of tracking online and in real time the different means of transport, mainly trucks, transporting hazardous materials which will therefore be geolocated using a GPS. In the case of an accident occurring on one of the trucks, the purpose is to evaluate, by means of a map, the hazard and safety zones where the level of risk is deemed acceptable, or inacceptable, around the affected truck, in order to set up safety barriers fence and to reduce the probability of occurrence of another accident Thus, during this work, a contribution in the realization of a monitoring and a supervision demonstrator of DGT has been developed, mainly with regard to the assessment of the level of risk through the production of mappings that evaluate hazardous and safety zones.

The developed tool provides a web service that allows the user to determine the hazardous areas with the intensity levels of hazardous phenomena for DGT. It provides the diameter or areas in the form of list of boxes of intensity zone SEI irreversible effects and SEL lethal effects , the SELS significant lethal effects area being less used.

It is used to describe the distribution of the population in the form of densities or zones with given issue areas. Security has become an essential domain in our daily life; from protecting mobile chats to bank accounts to confidential data. On the other hand, computers are advancing so fast that some cryptosystems may vanish in the upcoming years. For this, a need of robust security systems is raised to ensure that our data will be kept safe. This paper introduces a new approach in cryptography based on the distribution of data using an x-y key function.

Many algorithms are applied to serve the goal and promising results have appeared. Security has been maximized although there are some time and space limits for large-scale, so far. Cryptography, defined as the science of securing data against any attack, includes data encryption and decryption using a key.

While encryption transforms a plaintext into an incomprehensible cipher text, decryption reverses the process. Almost all life fields use secure systems to store and transfer data: banking, military, wireless sensor network, communication and embedded systems… Along history, many algorithms have been used; Caesar cipher is known as the first cryptography algorithm, it consists on shifting the letters of a message by 3 using alphabetical order to obtain an encrypted message. Also, many machines were used to decipher telegrams during the wars like the German Enigma and the Japanese Purple.

The cryptographic algorithms weren't explicitly available in the early days, but scientists have stated that the algorithm should be public and data must be secured using a key. We know two types of key encryption: symmetric and asymmetric. The symmetric one consists of a private key exchanged between communication extremities while the asymmetric is based on two keys, one is public and the other is private. A digital signature is also generated using private key to be sure of the sender identity. One of the most important concepts in cryptosystems is generating huge number of combinations.

The speed of decryption is relative to the speed of computers; more the speed, less the security. So we should increase the number of possibilities if we want a secure algorithm. In other words, cryptography is math in a part and computer technology in the other. Time, space and security are the criteria that distinguish a good algorithm from a bad one. In addition, the application where the algorithm is used is an essential part in deciding what range of each criteria to use. For example, we really need speed in chat applications, security in banking operations, and space in embedded systems.

So, the algorithm should be either flexible for all applications, or specific for each one. In what follows we will present a new cryptographic system based on x-y function and we will employ many algorithms to test its validity. Today, software bugs are causing significant losses in the industry.

Software "Testing shows the presence, not the absence of bugs" E. Proof assistants such as Coq provide a means of proving a software's correctness with regards to its specification. Although Coq is one of the world's leading proof assistants, it is still fairly limited in terms of the languages it supports during program extraction. We are, therefore, currently developing the Scala-of-Coq compiler that enables the Coq proof assistant to support program extraction in Scala, a programming language widely used in industry thanks to its fusion of functional and object-oriented programming.

Enhancing education system could be done not only by targeting the process of education itself, but also by providing the most possible comfort for student and parents to increase their interest in school. The idea of this project is to target this issue, in which a tracking system for the school bus was designed and developed using a software application android and web.

This system provides a mean for the parents to track their kids while they are in the bus and notifies them before the arrival of the bus to their houses location. The system is totally managed by the school which puts less cost and more information security. It allows the school to know about the absence of a student and hence the driver of the bus can avoid passing by his place if this will help him to avoid road congestion.

The role of ICT has evolved over the past decades from a supporting, back-office function to a key function, enabler and driving force for organizations. ICT has become a dynamic and strategic asset of an organization for the successful achievement of its mission and goals. ICT governance is not a one-time exercise or something achieved by a mandate or setting of rules.

It is an ongoing activity that requires a continuous improvement mentality and responsiveness to the fast changing IT environment. There is no single ICT governance model that suits all organizations. Yet there are agreed upon common elements that form the basic structure of an ICT governance framework. ICT governance mainly addresses three critical questions: What decisions must be made to ensure appropriate management and use of ICT? Who should make these decisions? How will these decisions be implemented and monitored? While investing in technology over time, a business tends to accumulate a host of applications and digitized business processes, along with added infrastructure and data.

This accumulation eventually becomes the organization's digitized platform. Yet only "mature" digitized platform correlate with firm's competitiveness. Companies need to strengthen their key enablers… The most important of these is to prioritize achieving and sustaining a mature digitized platform". BM and BMI In recent years, the term business model BM has been used in the literature in various contexts and with different meanings.

On the other hand, over the last 15 years, business model innovation BMI has gained an increasing amount of attention in studies related to governance and among researchers for business practices. The notion of BM is several decades old. No matter the definition, a firm's BM serves two interlinked purposes: to provide some stability for the development of the company's activities and, at the same time, to be flexible enough to allow for change.

But not all changes lead to a change in the business model. Only changes that affect the core standard repeated processes of a business model constitute a change in the BM. Moreover, the successful timing of business model innovation depends on the economic environment, the specific market and industry conditions, and a set of internal factors that includes the degree of product and service innovation, and available financial resources. Second, the ICT governance basic structures and framework are described. In addition, the present status of ICT governance is identified along with the challenges it faces.

Third, literature is revisited in order to respond to this paper concern: since "ICT governance is the dynamic and strategic asset of an organization" and since the purpose of the BM is "to provide some stability for the development of a company's activities and at the same time to be flexible enough to allow for changes", how do organization maintain the critical link between the dynamicity of technology and the anticipated stability of the business model in order to come up with a possible strategic framework that allows for innovative changes in their business model?

First, business models mediate the link between technology and firm performance and, second, developing the right technology is a matter of business model decision regarding openness and user engagement. Also, the BM frames that ICT governors hold in their heads determine the way in which technology gets developed and that these connections are capable of being very powerful.

The literature points to different ways in which IT helps drive BMI, but few papers exemplify through case studies how to accomplish this. Future work will concentrate on the identification of the framework of interaction between ICT and BM and its effect on performance and ICT governance.

References [1] Baden-Fuller, C. Business Models and Technological Innovation. Long Range Planning 46 6 : Business model dynamics and innovation: re establishing the missing linkages. Management Decision, 49 8 , Journal of Management, 43 1 , When and how to innovate your business model. Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems. ISSN, Business models, business strategy and innovation. Long Range Planning Geneva Zhang, Y. Working paper Ce concept n'attire pas seulement les gouvernements mais il attire aussi les entreprises, les centres de recherches et de formations et les chercheurs.

Quality assurance and enhancement represent a challenge for any organization irrespective of its size, operation and geographical presence. While some might claim that it is even more challenging for new establishments, others consider it as a chance to build solid quality assurance and enhancement foundations since inception before change becomes too complex and costly. Quality assurance and enhancement is very contextual and requires careful design and articulation taking into account the domestic country conditions and legal framework while trying to match best regional and international standards and practices through benchmarking.

In this work, we address one of the key challenges in developing a quality assurance framework at Al Maaref University, a newly established private and not-for-profit university in Beirut, Lebanon. The challenge is the lack of an external national and inter-institutional benchmark mechanism that allows the university to safeguard the academic and institutional standards of education, assuring the quality of the learning opportunities offered to students, promoting continuous and systematic improvement process and ensuring the implementation of transparency in information policy.

Despite the fact that Al Maaref University has a decree, No. This situation has always been a conundrum in the development of a 'nested' checks and balances in the quality assurance framework standards management, quality enhancement and transparency policies that is uniquely shaping a tripartite organizational alignments; governance, institutions and academics.

These requirements are no exception in Higher Education HE because it is important that education evolves and doesn't become stagnant. The more educated a country's population is, the better since education is vital for social and economic development, and HE is a key component in the maintenance of a country's competitiveness in the global economy. Over half of those emigrants held university degrees which in turn causes a loss for Lebanon in terms of economic and social advancement. After about a years-time of seeking a decent job worthy of their education without success, they tend to emigrate after not finding employment or refusing to take a job that is well below their qualifications.

We can clearly apprehend that there is a mismatch between the supply of university graduates and the skills the labor market demands. These supply-demand failings in the labor market are preventing young people from finding a suitable job that fits their qualifications. Therefore, there is some sort of gap between the skills taught at university and what the labor market requires. It has been evident in the past year in the richest countries that education is focusing on skills required by the workforce and not literacy in general to promote economic growth Yojana Sharma This acknowledgement is growing in emerging economies and should take major attention in Lebanon because there is debate in developing nations on what should succeed the Millennium Development Goals MDGs takes center stage in the next two years.

Innovation is "without the right skills, people languish on the margins of society, technological progress doesn't translate into economic growth, and countries can't compete in today's economies", said Andreas Schleicher, advisor on education to the OECD secretary general, pointing out that now "accumulating knowledge matters a lot less".

We will analyze different types of interactions between universities and enterprises. The major questions that will be addressed are how frequently universities and enterprises should interact and the benefits both sectors will attain; what skills are required id today's dynamic environment and what and how innovation should be adapted. Bibliography Eun, J.

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Explaining the "University-run enterprises" in China: A theoretical framework for university-industry relationship in developing countries and its application to China. Research Policy, 35 9 , Ferns, S. Critical assessment issues in work-integrated learning. Fraser, K. Australian Universities' Review, The, 55 2 , Perkmann, M. University-industry relationships and open innovation: Towards a research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 9 4 , Santoro, M.

Relationship dynamics between university research centers and industrial firms: Their impact on technology transfer activities. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 26 , Total catalytic oxidation is an attractive method in controlling these emissions due to the great amounts of energy saved, by the moderate temperature involved. The selection of an efficient support is of particular importance to obtain catalysts with good performance because the state and the structure of the support strongly influence the type of the formed metal oxide species and their dispersion.

In our case, an unconventional support hydroxyapatites Hap Ca10 PO4 6 OH 2 was used because of its low cost and high thermal stability and Hap based materials have recently attracted great attention in the VOC removal either by adsorption [2] or by oxidation [3]. Khatami et Ahmadinejad. Pour sa part, M. Arabes contre Perses. Le processus de paix. Les politiques eurasiennes.

En , le pouvoir du Guide supr. De plus en plus, la position de force du Guide supr. Maintenant que la situation financi. En , une multitude de facteurs contribuent. La prise du pouvoir par les Pasdarans, en particulier, pourrait donner lieu. Dans cette optique, le programme de liaison-recherche du Service emprunte de nombreuses avenues. Pour toute question, contactez-nous. Il y a une erreur d'orthographe ou de grammaire. Les renseignements sont incomplets.